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紫云英Astragalus sinicus

时间:2018-08-14 08:49来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名(Chinese Name):紫云英
学名(Scientific Name):Astragalus sinicus L.
英文名(English Common Name):Chinese milk-vetch
别名(Chinese Common Name):
异名(Synonym):Astragalus nankotaizanensis Sasaki  Astragalus nokoensis Sasaki  Astragalus sinicus var. macrocalyx Ulbr.  Astragalus lotoides Lam.
科属(Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae黄芪属
形态特征(Description):二年生草本,多分枝,匍匐,高10-30厘米,被白色疏柔毛。奇数羽状复叶,具7-13片小叶,长5-15厘米;叶柄较叶轴短;托叶离生,卵形,长3-6毫米,先端尖,基部互相多少合生,具缘毛;小叶倒卵形或椭圆形,长10-15毫米,宽4-10毫米,先端钝圆或微凹,基部宽楔形,上面近无毛,下面散生白色柔毛,具短柄。总状花序生5-10花,呈伞形;总花梗腋生,较叶长;苞片三角状卵形,长约0.5毫米;花梗短;花萼钟状,长约4毫米,被白色柔毛,萼齿披针形,长约为萼筒的1/2;花冠紫红色或橙黄色,旗瓣倒卵形,长10-11毫米,先端微凹,基部渐狭成瓣柄,翼瓣较旗瓣短,长约8毫米,瓣片长圆形,基部具短耳,瓣柄长约为瓣片的1/2,龙骨瓣与旗瓣近等长,瓣片半圆形,瓣柄长约等于瓣片的1/3;子房无毛或疏被白色短柔毛,具短柄。荚果线状长圆形,稍弯曲,长12-20毫米,宽约4毫米,具短喙,黑色,具隆起的网纹;种子肾形,栗褐色,长约3毫米。花期2-6月,果期3-7月。
分布(Distribution):产长江流域各省区,生于海拔400-3000米间的山坡、溪边及潮湿处。
用途(Use):为重要的绿肥作物和牲畜饲料,嫩梢亦供蔬食。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 393, 394
Astragalus sinicus Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 1: 103. 1767.
紫云英 zi yun ying | Fabaceae  | Astragalus
Astragalus lotoides Pallas; A. sinicus var. macrocalyx Ulbrich.
Plants annual or short-lived perennial, sparsely covered with appressed white hairs 0.1-0.6 mm. Stems intricately branched, ascending to nearly erect or prostrate to creeping, with long internodes, up to 30 cm, sparsely hairy to subgla­brous, rooting at nodes. Leaves 2.5-10 cm; stipules 2-3 mm, free, ciliate; petiole much shorter than to as long as rest of leaf, like rachis sparsely hairy; leaflets in 3-5 pairs, obovate to ob­cordate, 5-17 × 3-13 mm, abaxially sparsely appressed hairy, adaxially glabrous or with a few scattered hairs, apex widely rounded to distinctly emarginate. Racemes umbellate, 4-10-flowered; peduncle erect, 2.5-25 cm, sparsely hairy; bracts 0.3-1 mm, ciliate. Calyx 3-5 mm, loosely to rather densely or more rarely scarcely covered with appressed, wide and flattened, white hairs 0.1-0.3 mm; teeth 1-2(-3) mm. Petals white, pink, light red, or purple, rarely creamy yellow or yellow; standard ovate, 9-14 × 5-8 mm, apex incised; wings 7-11 mm; keel 9-14 mm. Legumes with a stipe 2-3 mm, 12-20 mm, 2.5-3.5 mm high and wide, with a slender beak up to 5 mm; valves thin, blackish, loosely hairy.
Wet places, riversides, as a weed in rice fields, widespread in E Asia; 100-3000 m. Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, He­bei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhe­jiang [Japan].
 




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