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胡卢巴Trigonella foenum-graecum

时间:2018-08-14 08:46来源:未知 作者:徐晔春 点击:
中文名(Chinese Name):胡卢巴
学名(Scientific Name):Trigonella foenum-graecum L.
英文名(English Common Name):sicklefruit fenugreek
别名(Chinese Common Name):香草、香豆
异名(Synonym):Trigonella tibetana (Alef.) Vassilcz.  Foenum-graecum officinale var. tibetanum Alef.
科属Family & Genus):蝶形花科,Fabaceae胡卢巴属
形态特征Description):一年生草本,高30-80厘米。主根深达土中80厘米,根系发达。茎直立,圆柱形,多分枝,微被柔毛。羽状三出复叶;托叶全缘,膜质,基部与叶柄相连,先端渐尖,被毛;叶柄平展,长6-12毫米;小叶长倒卵形、卵形至长圆状披针形,近等大,长15-40毫米,宽4-15毫米,先端钝,基部楔形,边缘上半部具三角形尖齿,上面无毛,下面疏被柔毛,或秃净,侧脉5-6对,不明显;顶生小叶具较长的小叶柄。花无梗,1-2朵着生叶腋,长13-18毫米;萼筒状,长7-8毫米,被长柔毛,萼齿披针形,锥尖,与萼等长;花冠黄白色或淡黄色,基部稍呈堇青色,旗瓣长倒卵形,先端深凹,明显地比冀瓣和龙骨瓣长;子房线形,微被柔毛,花柱短,柱头头状,胚珠多数。荚果圆筒状,长7-12厘米,径4-5毫米,直或稍弯曲,无毛或微被柔毛,先端具细长喙,喙长约2厘米(包括子房上部不育部分),背缝增厚,表面有明显的纵长网纹,有种子10-20粒。种子长圆状卵形,长3-5毫米,宽2-3毫米,棕褐色,表面凹凸不平。花期4-7月,果期7-9月。
分布(Distribution):我国南北各地均有栽培,在西南、西北各地呈半野生状态。生于田间、路旁。地中海东岸、中东、伊朗高原以至喜马拉雅地区也有。
用途(Use):全草有香豆素气味。可作饲料;嫩茎、叶可作蔬菜食用;种子供药用,能补肾壮阳,祛痰除湿;茎、叶或种子晒干磨粉掺入面粉中蒸食作增香剂;干全草可驱除害虫。
引自植物志英文版:FOC Vol. 10 Page 558, 559
Trigonella foenum-graecum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 777. 1753.
胡卢巴 hu lu ba | Fabaceae  | Trigonella
Annual herbs, 30-80 cm. Taproot to 80 cm, fibrous roots lateral. Stem erect, terete, branched. Leaves 3-foliolate; stipules entire, membranous, base adnate to petiole, apex acute; petiole spreading, 6-15 mm; leaflets narrowly obovate, ovate, to ob­long-elliptic, terminal equal to laterals, 15-40 × 4-15 mm, sparsely pubescent or glabrescent abaxially, glabrous adaxially, lateral veins 5 or 6 pairs, base cuneate, margin dentate in upper 1/2. Flowers sessile, axillary, solitary or in pairs. Calyx 7-8 mm, villous. Corolla creamy or pale yellow, base violet, 13-18 mm. Ovary puberulent; ovules numerous. Legume long conical, 7-12 × 0.4-0.5 cm, straight or slightly curved, glabrescent, veins longitudinally reticulate, apex with long beak to 2 cm, distal suture thickened. Seeds 10-20, brown, oblong-ovoid, 3-5 × 2-3 mm, surface uneven. Fl. Apr-Jul, fr. Jul-Sep.
Cultivated throughout China, escaped in fields as a semi-wild weed in Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang [Himalayan re­gion; SW Asia].
The seeds are used medicinally. The tender leaves and stems are used as vegetables; and the dried stems, leaves, and seeds are used as flavoring for foods and in baking. The dried plant also is used as insect repellent.




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